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关于特殊调弦
关于特殊调弦
 更新时间:2009-01-05 16:50:52  点击数:23103
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Classical guitar tunings古典吉他调弦



The classical guitar developed over a period of 500 years and a number of guitar tunings are commonly used this genre, some based upon historical practice. Unlike other musical styles, in which alternative tunings are used by artists largely as a matter of individual preference, in classical guitar styles, the decision to employ alternative tunings largely resides with composers or arrangers of musical transcriptions. Thus, classical guitarists performing known transcriptions are assumed to be using defined tunings.
古典吉他调弦,古典吉他发展了500个年头,在这个流派中,很多吉他调弦被普遍使用,一些是惯例的做法。与其他的音乐风格不一样的是,这里的变化调弦的使用只是音乐家个人的喜好所致,在古典吉他风格中,是否要用到变化调弦大多取决于作曲者或改编者的谱稿。因些古典吉他手在演奏知名的谱子时,要用谱子所标的调弦。

Renaissance lute tuning: E-A-d-fb-b-e'
This tuning may also be used with a capo at the third fret to match the common lute pitch: G-c-f-a-d'-g'. This tuning also matches standard vihuela tuning and is often employed in classical guitar transcriptions of music written for those instruments.
文艺复兴时鲁特琴调弦:
这个调弦常常在第三品夹个变调夹来与普通的鲁特琴调弦G-c-f-a-d'-g'相匹配。这个调弦也与比尤埃拉琴(西班牙文艺复兴时期的第一种弹拨乐器)相搭配,常常在古典吉他专门为这种乐器所写的手稿中可以看到这个调弦。

"Pseudo Russian" or "g" tuning: D-G-d-g-b-e'
A versatile tuning examples of which can be heard in Choro de Saudade by Agustín Barrios and also in well known transcriptions of La Maja de Goya by Enrique Granados and Sevilla by Isaac Albéniz.
“伪俄式”即G调弦D-G-d-g-b-e'
在Agustín Barrios的Choro de Saudade中可以看到这个调弦的多样化性能,众所周知在Enrique Granados 的La Maja de Goya及Isaac Albéniz的Sevilla曲谱里也用这样的调弦。
出自指弹中国论坛:http://www.fingerstylechina.com/viewthread.php?tid=9614



Open tunings  开放式调弦




In guitar playing, an open tuning is one where the strings are tuned so that a chord is achieved without fretting, or pressing any of the strings. With such a tuning, other chords may be played by simply barring a fret or through the use of a slide.
在吉他演奏中,开放式调弦是将各弦调成一个和弦,这样就不需按弦就可以弹出来。在这种调弦下,其他的和弦只要在指板上来回滑动横按就可以了。


Open tunings are common in blues music and some rock and folk music. They are particularly used in steel guitar and bottleneck guitar playing. The names of some tunings vary between genres, for example in Hawaiian Music, for slack-key guitar, an example would be the taro patch, or open G tuning, with strings low-high D-G-D-G-B-D. But in bluegrass music, open G can mean G B D G B D.
开放式调弦常在布鲁斯音乐中,及一些摇滚,民谣中使用。特别是在钢弦吉他及滑棒吉他上,经常都会用到这种调弦。一些调弦的名称会因流派不同而有不同的叫法,比如夏威夷音乐,对于slack key吉他来说,开放G调弦是(低-高):D-G-D-G-B-D,但是布鲁斯乐中,开放G是G B D G B D。

知名的演奏家包括Kim Thayil, Robert Johnson, Mark Tremonti, Bukka White, Skip James, Nick Drake, Jack White, Nic Jones, John Fahey, Bob Dylan, Alexander Rosenbaum, Keith Richards, Duane Allman, Lowell George, Mick Taylor, Ry Cooder, Richard Thompson, Martin Carthy, John Martyn, Blind Blake, Leo Kottke, Richie Havens, Joni Mitchell, Jonatha Brooke, Mark Kozelek, Michael Hedges, Ted Hawkins, Jimmy Page, Rod Price, Alan Sparhawk, Barry Gibb, Joe Walsh, John Butler, Derek Trucks, Kevin Shields, Sonic Youth, Pete Bexley, Ricky Wilson, Keith Strickland, Devin Townsend, Dan Auerbach, Ani DiFranco, Don Ross, Johnny Marr, Rich Robinson, John5, Jimmie Spheeris and John Rzeznik, 都用开放式调弦。

Examples
例子:
[edit] Major tunings主要调弦
Major open tunings (giving a major chord with the open strings) include:
大调开放式调弦包括:
开放 A: 低-高; E-A-C#-E-A-E
也可以是: 低-高; E-A-C#-E-A-C#
"滑音" 开放 A: 低-高; E-A-E-A-C#-E (注意这个调弦跟开放G类似,只是每弦升高一个全音,即两品)
开放 C: 低-高; C-G-C-G-C-E
开放 D: 低-高; D-A-D-F#-A-D
也可以是: 低-高; D-A-D'-A'-D-D
开放 E: 低-高; E-B-E-G#-B-E (用细型弦,因为三根弦均需要升高)
开放 F: 低-高; F-A-C-F-C-F (少用)
升F调弦 低-高; F#-A#-C#-F#-C#-F#( 只有Curtis Mayfield用此调弦)
开放 G: 低-高; D-G-D-G-B-D
dobro 开放 G: 低-高; G-B-D-G-B-D (普通吉他偶尔会用到,但第五、六弦要细弦,只用方形琴才能受得了标准弦的张力。 but requires lighter fifth and sixth strings; Only square-necked resonator guitars can hold this tuning with standard gauges).
俄式开放 G: 低-高; D-G-B-D-G-B-D (俄式七弦琴的标准调弦).

Open tunings versus altered tunings
Generally, Open Tunings refer to the changing of string pitches to reproduce common Major and Minor chords. One might consider broadening this definition to include more obscure or less used tonalities / chords such as the ones listed below. But these are in kind of a "middle ground" between standard Open Tunings and Altered Tunings. Altered tunings are tunings that don't really reflect any specific chord name. An example would be the tuning Jimmy Page uses on Led Zeppelin's Rain Song (D,G,C,G,C,D). Even though some tunings could be named by "theory" they might lack the gravity or musical cohesion to really represent that chord.
开放式与变化调弦对比。
总的来说,开放式调弦指的是将弦的音高改变,来达到大调及小调和弦的效果。你可以将这个定义用在像下面列出的更模糊或者更少用的音调及和弦上。但这些调弦是一种介于开放式调弦与变化调弦之间的调弦。变化调弦是指空弦音无法构成一组和弦的调弦,典型的一个例子就是Jimmy Page在Led Zeppelin的 Rain Song上用的D,G,C,G,C,D调弦。就算有些调弦可以在理论命名,但它们很可能会缺乏这个和弦所具有的一种凝力或者说是音乐相关性。

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