用户登录:
请您先 登录注册!   用户名:   密码:   验证码: 看不清,我要换一个 记住登录信息  
 
点此进入新阳光吉他定制工坊!
加入收藏
设为首页
繁體中文
网站首页|新闻文章|资源下载|书碟精选|人物档案|图片欣赏|视听空间|网上商城|留言频道
   位置: 西部吉他网 >> 新闻文章 >> 操作指南 >> 进阶提高 >> 正文
最新调查
    我们该增加哪方面的内容?
吉他学习指导
曲谱资料下载
人物资料介绍
更多的视听内容
更多的商品
开设一个吉他论坛

  

频道统计
关于特殊调弦
关于特殊调弦
 更新时间:2009-01-05 16:50:52  点击数:23515
【字体: 字体颜色

Crossnote tunings
The above open tunings all give a major chord with open strings. Since it is highly likely guitarists will need to play minor chords as well, open tunings must be adapted to allow this by lowering the pitch of one of the strings forming the open chord by half a step. To avoid the relatively cumbersome designation "open D minor", "open C minor", such tunings are sometimes called "crossnote tunings". The term also expresses the fact that, by fretting the lowered string at the first fret, it is possible to produce a major chord very easily.
上述的开放调弦的空弦音都是一个大调和弦。因为吉他手也要弹小调,开放调弦要将其中某根弦调低,形成一个小调开放调弦来演奏。为了不必“开放D小调”,“开放C小调”的这种相对繁琐的称呼,这些调弦有时被叫做“共音调弦crossnote tunings”。这个术语本身也反映了一个事实,那就是在第一品按住被调低的那根弦,就可以轻松按出一个大调和弦。
注:1 3 5是大调,1
b3
5是小调。 所以只要把调弦中的3调低半音就是小调。

Crossnote tunings include
共音调弦包含:
共音 A: 低-高; E-A-E-A-C-E
也可以是: E-A-C-E-A-E (rare)
共音 C: 低-高; C-G-C-G-C-Eb
开放 D: 低-高; D-A-D-F-A-D
共音 E: 低-高; E-B-E-G-B-E
共音 F: 低-高; F-Ab-C-F-C-F (非常少见)
也可以是: 低-高; F-C-F-Ab-C-F (Albert Collins用过; 要用特细弦)
共音 G: 低-高; D-G-D-G-Bb-D

Modal tunings 形式调弦
Sometimes a guitarist will want a tuning that will permit very easy chords but not be definitively minor or major. In this case, modal tunings can be used. They can be especially effective with droning open strings, and give "suspended" second or fourth chords:
有时吉他手要按和弦方便,但又不一定要小调或大调,这时就可以用形式调弦。在常用的空弦音的时候它很有用,可以形成一个挂留二或四和弦。

Modal tunings include:
形式和弦包括了
Asus2: 低-高; E-A-B-E-A-E
Asus4: 低-高; E-A-D-E-A-E
C6: low-high; C-A-C-G-C-E
Csus2: 低-高; C-G-C-G-C-D
Csus4: 低-高; C-G-C-G-C-F
Dsus2: 低-高; D-A-D-E-A-D
Dsus4: 低-高; D-A-D-G-A-D
Esus2: 低-高; E-A-E-F#-B-E
Esus4: 低-高; E-A-E-A-B-E
G6: 低-高; D-G-D-G-B-E
Gsus2: 低-高; D-G-D-G-A-D
Gsus4: 低-高; D-G-D-G-C-D


"Extended chord" tunings扩展和弦调弦
These tunings allow a guitarist to play an open seventh, ninth, eleventh or thirteenth chord. One or more of the strings is retuned to the appropriate note of the required scale. Such tunings may be either minor or major.
这些调弦可以让吉他手弹出开放七,九,十一,或十三和弦。其中一根或几根弦要调到音阶上所需音。这种调弦可以是大调,也可以是小调。

Examples are:
Open Dmaj7:低-高; D-A-D-F#-A-C#
Open Dmin7: 低-高; D-A-D-F-A-C
Open Emin7: ; E-B-D-G-B-E (5弦要用细弦)
Open G6: ; D-G-D-G-B-E
Dobro open G6: ; G-B-D-G-B-E

Open Gmaj7:
D-G-D-G-B-F
D-G-D-F-B-D
F-G-D-G-B-D
Open Gmaj7: D-G-D-F#-B-D

"Modal" G7: ; F-G-D-G-C-D
"Open G6min7":; F-G-D-G-B-E
Open Cmin7:
C-G-C-G-Bb-Eb
Open Cmaj7:
C-G-C-G-B-E
。。。。。。。。。。。
这个例子是举不尽的


These open tunings offer much room for experiment, but can only be used in a few keys.
这些调弦为音乐试验带来更大的空间,但只有一两个可以用。

Steel guitar 钢吉他
On table steel guitar and pedal steel guitar, the most common tunings are the extended-chord C6 tuning and E9 tuning, sometimes known as the Texas and Nashville tunings respectively. On a multiple-neck instrument, the near neck will normally be some form of C6, and the next closest neck E9.
在板式电子吉他及踏板电吉他上,最常用的调弦是扩展和弦C6的调弦及E9调弦,有时叫作德克萨斯及纳什维尔调弦。在多头琴上,一根琴颈通常用C6,而另一根则用E9。

Noted country player Junior Brown plays his trademark Guit-Steel in a C13 tuning, which is a C6 Chord with an added 7th above the high A (the Steel has 5 strings instead of a pedal's 7)
知名的乡村乐手小布朗的招牌guit-steel钢吉他用的是C13调弦,这个调弦就是用C6和弦外加一个第7音A(钢吉他只有五弦,而不是踏板有七弦)

Necks with 12 or more strings can be used with universal tunings which combine the features of C6 and E9. On a 12 string pedal steel guitar, all 12 strings are tuned and played individually, not as 6 double courses as on the 12 string guitar.
十二弦的吉他可以将通用的调弦与C6,E9合起来一起用。在12弦的踏板电吉他上,所有的的12弦都是独立调音弹奏,而不是用12弦琴那种两两相应地调弦方式。
出自指弹中国论坛:http://www.fingerstylechina.com/viewthread.php?tid=9614



Miscellaneous tunings
各类杂项的调弦



全四调弦All fourths: E-A-d-g-c'-f'
This tuning is like that of the lowest four strings in standard tuning. It removes from standard tuning the irregularity of the interval of a third between the second and third strings. With regular tunings like this, chords can simply be moved down or across the fretboard, dramatically reducing the number of different finger positions that need to be memorized. The disadvantage is that not all major and minor chords can be played with all six strings at once.
这个调弦是标准调弦的四根低弦。它将标准调弦的第三弦与第二弦的不规则性去除.用这种调弦,和弦可以在指板上下左右移动,减少了和弦指型的记忆量。弊端是并非所有的大调小调都可以用这调弦按出来。



Keven Chambers' Custom Open E: E-B-e-F#-b-e
Used by Guitarist Keven Chambers this is just an alternate version of the Open E Major tuning using an F# on the fourth string instead of a G#.
Keven Chamber开放E调弦:E-B-e-F#-b-e
吉他手Keven Chamber用的一种调弦,这只是开放E大调调弦的变化调弦,在第四弦上用的是F#而不是G#


All fifths: C-G-d-a-e'-b'
This is a tuning in intervals of fifths like that of a mandolin or a violin. Has a remarkably wide range, though it is difficult to achieve (the high b" makes the first string very taut such that it will break easily), and may not play well on an acoustic guitar (the low C is too low to resonate properly in a standard guitar's body). Luthier Todd Keehn claims to have been the first guitarist to adopt an all-fifths tuning, his being arranged G-D-a-e-b'-f#', and he has made an all fifths tuned guitar that can be seen at his website, http://tkinstruments.com/. The guitar is able to intonate in this radical tuning by slanting all the frets and the nut, and allowing each string its own bridge; and thus its own scale length.
全五调弦
这是曼陀玲或小提琴常用到的音程为5的调弦。这个调弦的音域相当地宽,但是也很难达到要求(高音B使第一弦崩得非常紧,容易断)这个调弦在原声吉他上的效果也不理想(低音C太低在普通的箱琴上无法产生共鸣)据说Luthier Todd Keehn是第一个用这种调弦的吉他手,他还用 G-D-a-e-b'-f#调弦,他的全五调弦的琴可以在他的网站上看到http://tkinstruments.com/。在这个调弦里,吉他的品丝及弦枕要调成斜状,每根弦都有自身的琴桥及自身的音阶弦长。



D modal tuning: D-A-d-g-a-d' and D-A-d-a-d'-d'
Popularised by Davey Graham, who had been inspired by Arabic oud tuning while living in Morocco. D modal tuning D-A-d-g-a-d' is now encountered in Celtic music and contemporary music.
形式调弦D D-A-d-g-a-d' and D-A-d-a-d'-d'
由Davey Graham推广起来的调弦,这个调弦是他在摩洛哥时从阿拉伯音乐调弦中得到的灵感,形式和弦D D-A-d-g-a-d' 与赛而特音乐及现代音乐中常常可以遇到。


Another similar modal tuning is D-A-d-a-d'-d' from low to high respectively. Used by guitarist Stephen Roy, it makes chords simpler to play. Having a "dropped D" effect in the bottom bass strings makes one finger chords easier. The top two treble strings can be slightly out of tune from each other, creating a chorus double guitar kind of effect.
还有一个形式调弦是 D-A-d-a-d'-d'(从低到高),是由Stephen Roy使用,这个调弦使和弦更容易演奏。它在低音弦上有一种“降D调弦”的效果,使得和弦按起来很轻松。高音弦两根弦可以稍微走调,这样可以营造出一种双吉他合奏的效果。

Hardcore tuning: C-G-c-f-a-bb
- A rather uncommon tuning, "hardcore" tuning is used by bands of hardcore, grindcore, and even some metalcore. It much resembles dropped C tuning, except for the high strings, which, depending on what is most useful for the guitarist, are tuned one semitone (a minor second) apart. This allows the guitarist to easily create the very harsh dissonance of the minor second.
Hardcore 调弦: C-G-c-f-a-bb
这个调弦很少用,Hardcore 调弦在hardcore, grindcore, 还有一些 metalcore的乐队里会用到。这个有点像是降C调弦,但高音弦根据吉他手的需要作了一个半音的调整。这个使吉他手很容易制造出非常刺耳的不协调的小调音。



Robert Fripp's "New Standard Tuning": C-G-d-a-e'-g'
This is a tuning devised by Robert Fripp of King Crimson, used by most Guitar Craft students around the world. The tuning is similar to all fifths except the first string is dropped from b' to g'. Some guitarists maintain that the term 'New Standard Tuning' is a misnomer and consider it to be a source of controversy, but the name appears to have stuck due the absence of viable alternative designations. Time will tell whether the tuning is in fact accepted outside of GC as a viable all-purpose tuning.
Robert Fripp 新标准调弦 C-G-d-a-e'-g'
这个调弦由红王乐队Robert Fripp所创,使用者是世界各地的吉他工艺学员。这个调弦跟全五调弦类似,只不过第一弦从B降到了G。一些吉他手觉得“新标准调弦”这个称呼是用词不当,觉得这个容易导致产生争论,但是这个名字似乎就这么定下来了,因为也没有更可行的称呼。时间会证明这个调弦是否真的能在吉他工艺学员外找到一席之地。

Billy Corgan's "Mayonaise" tuning: Eb, Ab, Ab, Gb, Bb, D
Corgan utilizes this unique tuning on Mayonnaise. The A is raised by a half step, while the D is lowered by 2 whole steps. This allows for Corgan to play the chord formations with all strings being played.
Billy Corgan的“蛋黄酱”调弦 Eb, Ab, Ab, Gb, Bb, D
Corgan在蛋黄酱这个曲子上使用了此独特的调弦。A升半音,而D降两全音,这样使得Corgan能用到所有的弦弹奏和弦。

[edit] John Rzeznik's "Iris" tuning: B-D-d-d-d'-d'
John Rzeznik of the rock band Goo Goo Dolls uses this tuning on the studio recorded version of his song Iris, an international hit featured on the soundtrack of City Of Angels. It creates a very shimmer-like ringing sound similar to a twelve string guitar. To tune to this tuning on a standard six string guitar the low E string is lowered to a B; the A string is lowered to a D, the D string is left the same, the G string is lowered to a D, the B string is raised to a D, and the high E string is lowered to a D. On some guitars this may require obtaining a thicker low E string than is usual to obtain a full sound when tuned down to B, and avoid the string slapping the fret board.
John Rzeznik的IRIS调弦:B-D-d-d-d'-d'
摇滚乐队Goo Goo Dolls的John Rzeznik,用这个调弦在录音棚录制了Iris这首歌,这首歌是天使之城这张专辑里的主打歌,在国际上取得很大的反响。它营造了一种像十二弦琴那样的铃一般清脆的音色。在一般吉他上调这个调弦低音E要调低成B,A弦调低成D,D弦保留,G弦调低成D,B弦调高到D,最高弦E调低到D。在一些吉他上可能要用一根粗的E弦,这样它调到B时可以得到一个很充分的音色而不会使弦打品。

John Rzeznik uses a different tuning for an acoustic version of "Iris", tuned at D-A-d-g-b'-d'. This allows the above song to be played solo with an acoustic guitar and to retain a fuller sound than is achievable with the B-D-d-d-d-d tuning. Yet this tuning also retains a slight ringing sound due to three strings being tuned to D, the piece being in the key of D major.
John Rzeznik在原声版的Iris上使用了另一个调弦, D-A-d-g-b'-d', 这使得这个曲子可以用原声吉他独奏而仍能保持 B-D-d-d-d-d上很充分的音色。然而因为三根弦都调成D,这个调弦在弹D大调曲子时,也保持了微微有铃般的音色。

John Rzeznik's song "Black Balloon" is tuned at Db-Ab-Db-Ab-Db-Db. The song can also be played as Db-Ab-Db-Db-Db-Db, although it won't sound the same.
John Rzeznik的Black Balloon黑气球这首歌,调弦为Db-Ab-Db-Ab-Db-Db。虽然它听起来会不一样,这首歌也可以用Db-Ab-Db-Db-Db-Db,弹奏。

Complete range of string pitch combinations
Each of the six strings can be alternately tuned as low as a whole step lower and as much as a whole step higher without stressing the neck or the strings. With five possible tunings for each string (+2, +1, 0, -1, and -2), there are as many as 15,625 possible tunings for a six-string guitar.
弦音高组合音域
六根弦的每一根弦在降低一个全音,或升高一个全音情况下不会增加琴颈及琴弦的受力。每根弦可以有5个音高(+2, +1, 0, -1,
-2)来算,一把六弦琴可以有15,625个调弦。


A standard guitar sounds one octave below pitch as written in standard notation. That is, the first string in standard tuning plays the E note that is a major third above middle C, and is written on the staff as a major tenth above middle C.
一把标准吉他实际音高比谱面低一个八度。这就意味着,标准调弦的第一弦的E音是中音C调第三音,在谱面记的则是中音C调第10个音。


There are also tenor guitars, baritone guitars tuned BEADF?B (or ADGCEA, GDGCDG, GDGCEA, GCGCEG, etc.) a fourth lower than a standard (prime) guitar, treble guitars tuned a fourth higher than a prime guitar and contrabass guitars, which are tuned one octave lower than prime guitars. Seven-string guitars have an extra low string which is a B in standard tuning.
也有高音吉他,低音吉他用BEADF?B (或 ADGCEA, GDGCDG, GDGCEA, GCGCEG, 等)。比标准吉他低四度,高音吉他比普通吉他高四度,而超低音吉他则比普通吉他低一个八度。七弦琴有一根特低弦,在标准调弦里是B音。

To compensate for string stretching when played, intonation or string length tuning can be done by tuning the seventh fret notes to the seventh fret harmonic pitches for each string. The seventh fret harmonics pitch should match the fundamental frequency of the open string notes.
为了弥补弹奏时的琴弦拉伸,可以将每弦第七品音调到第七品泛音音高。第七品泛音音高应与基本的空弦音一致。

上一页  [1] [2] [3] 
  • 上一篇: 陈志《古典吉他技巧与表现》讲座全文
  • 下一篇: 如何使左右手协调。
  • 发表评论   告诉好友   打印此文  收藏此页  关闭窗口  返回顶部
    热点文章
     
    推荐文章
     
    相关文章
    网友评论:(只显示最新5条。)
    加入收藏 | 站长邮箱 | 友情链接 | 与我同在 | 版权申明 | 联系我们 |
    页面执行时:0.078 秒

    联系电话:028-85457912 QQ:179418946 邮箱:dayuwlf@163.com
    蜀ICP备05019967 | 通讯地址:中国.成都.武侯区太平横街97-10号
    西部吉他网 版权所有 Copyright© 2002-2022 Westguitar.net .All Rights Reserved